Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2024
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes Income Taxes
We have historically filed a consolidated federal income tax return for all of our wholly owned subsidiaries, including Sirius XM and Pandora. On February 1, 2021, we entered into a tax sharing agreement with Liberty Media governing the allocation of consolidated U.S. income tax liabilities and setting forth agreements with respect to other tax matters. The tax sharing agreement contains provisions that we believe are customary for tax sharing agreements between members of a consolidated group. On November 3, 2021, Liberty Media informed us that it beneficially owned over 80% of the outstanding shares of our common stock; as a result of this, we were included in the consolidated tax return of Liberty Media beginning November 4, 2021. The tax sharing agreement and our inclusion in Liberty Media’s consolidated tax group is not expected to have any material adverse effect on us.
We have calculated the provision for income taxes by using a separate return method.  Any difference between the tax expense (or benefit) allocated to us under the separate return method and payments to be made for (or received from) Liberty Media for tax expense are treated as either dividends or capital contributions. Income tax expense was $80 and $75 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Our effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was 23.2% and 24.4%, respectively. The effective tax rate for each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023 was negatively impacted by shortfalls related to share-based compensation. We estimate our effective tax rate for the year ending December 31, 2024 will be approximately 22%.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we recognized net tax benefits of $4 in Income tax expense in our unaudited consolidated statement of comprehensive income which includes tax credits and other income tax benefits of $25 partially offset by amortization expense of $21 associated with our tax equity investments. Refer to Note 10 for more information on our tax equity investments.
As of each of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we had a valuation allowance related to deferred tax assets of $88 that were not likely to be realized due to the timing of certain federal and state net operating loss limitations.
On August 16, 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, or IRA, was signed into law. Among other things, the IRA imposes a 15% corporate alternative minimum tax for tax years beginning after December 31, 2022, levies a 1% excise tax on net stock repurchases after December 31, 2022, and provides tax incentives to promote clean energy. Based on our historical
net stock repurchase activity, the excise tax and the other provisions of the IRA did not have a material impact on our results of operations or financial position.