Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements of Holdings have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). All significant intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain numbers in our prior period consolidated financial statements and footnotes have been reclassified or consolidated to conform to our current period presentation.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and footnotes.  Estimates, by their nature, are based on judgment and available information.  Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.  Significant estimates inherent in the preparation of the accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include asset impairment, depreciable lives of our satellites, share-based payment expense, income taxes, and the purchase accounting related to the Pandora Acquisition (defined below).

Fair Value Measurements
Fair Value Measurements
For assets and liabilities required to be reported at fair value, GAAP provides a hierarchy that prioritizes inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three broad levels. Level 1 inputs are based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical instruments. Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted market prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements and Recently Adopted Accounting Policies
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract. The amendments in this ASU align the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. The implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract should be presented as a prepaid asset in the balance sheet and expensed over the term of the hosting arrangement to the same line item in the statement of income as the costs related to the hosting fees. The guidance in this ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted including adoption in any interim period. The amendments should be applied either retrospectively or prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after adoption. This ASU will not have a material impact on our consolidated statements of operations.
Recently Adopted Accounting Policies
ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). In February 2016, FASB issued ASU 2016-02 which requires companies to recognize lease assets and liabilities arising from operating leases in the statement of financial position. This ASU does not significantly change the previous lease guidance for how a lessee should recognize, measure, and present expenses and cash flows arising from a lease. Additionally, the criteria for classifying a finance lease versus an operating lease are substantially the same as the previous guidance. This ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842) Targeted Improvements, amending certain aspects of the new leasing standard. The amendment allows an additional optional transition method whereby an entity records a cumulative effect adjustment to opening retained earnings in the year of adoption without restating prior periods. We adopted this ASU on January 1, 2019 and elected the additional transition method per ASU 2018-11. Our leases consist of repeater leases, facility leases and equipment leases. We elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within the new standard.
Adoption of the new standard resulted in the recording of additional lease assets and lease liabilities of approximately $347 and $369, respectively, as of January 1, 2019. The standard did not impact our consolidated statements of operations, consolidated statements of cash flows or debt. Additionally, we did not record a cumulative effect adjustment to opening retained earnings.
Earnings per Share Basic net income per common share is calculated by dividing the income available to common stockholders by the weighted average common shares outstanding during each reporting period.  Diluted net income per common share adjusts the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the potential dilution that could occur if common stock equivalents (stock options, restricted stock units and convertible debt) were exercised or converted into common stock, calculated using the treasury stock method.
Receivables, net
Receivables, net, includes customer accounts receivable, receivables from distributors and other receivables.
Customer accounts receivable, net, includes receivables from our subscribers, advertising customers and other customers, and is stated at amounts due, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. Our allowance for doubtful accounts is based upon our assessment of various factors.  We consider historical experience, the age of the receivable balances, current economic conditions and other factors that may affect the counterparty’s ability to pay.  Bad debt expense is included in Customer service and billing expense in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
Receivables from distributors primarily include billed and unbilled amounts due from automakers for services included in the sale or lease price of vehicles, as well as billed amounts due from wholesale distributors of our satellite radios.  Other receivables primarily include amounts due from manufacturers of our radios, modules and chipsets where we are entitled to subsidies and royalties based on the number of units produced.  We have not established an allowance for doubtful accounts for our receivables from distributors or other receivables as we have historically not experienced any significant collection issues with automakers or other third parties.
Inventory, net Inventory consists of finished goods, refurbished goods, chipsets and other raw material components used in manufacturing radios and connected vehicle devices. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market.  We record an estimated allowance for inventory that is considered slow moving or obsolete or whose carrying value is in excess of net realizable value.  The provision related to products purchased for resale in our direct to consumer distribution channel and components held for resale by us is reported as a component of Cost of equipment in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.  The provision related to inventory consumed in our OEM channel is reported as a component of Subscriber acquisition costs in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired in business combinations. Our annual impairment assessment of our two reporting units is performed as of the fourth quarter of each year, and an assessment is performed at other times if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. ASC 350, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other, states that an entity should perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair
value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value.
Indefinite Life Intangible Assets
We have identified our FCC licenses and the Pandora and XM trademarks as indefinite life intangible assets after considering the expected use of the assets, the regulatory and economic environment within which they are used and the effects of obsolescence on their use. As part of the Pandora Acquisition, we also identified $331 related to its trademarks, for which the fair value was determined using the relief from royalty method as of the acquisition date.
We hold FCC licenses to operate our satellite digital audio radio service and provide ancillary services. Each of the FCC licenses authorizes us to use radio spectrum, a reusable resource that does not deplete or exhaust over time.
Our annual impairment assessment of our identifiable indefinite life intangible assets is performed as of the fourth quarter of each year. An assessment is performed at other times if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the asset below its carrying value. If the carrying value of the intangible assets exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized. As of June 30, 2019, there were no indicators of impairment, and no impairment loss was recognized for intangible assets with indefinite lives during the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018.
Equity Method Investments
Sirius XM Canada is accounted for as an equity method investment, and its results are not consolidated in our unaudited consolidated financial statements. Sirius XM Canada does not meet the requirements for consolidation as we do not have the ability to direct the most significant activities that impact Sirius XM Canada's economic performance.
Commitments and Contingencies
We record a liability when we believe that it is both probable that a liability will be incurred, and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. We evaluate developments in legal matters that could affect the amount of liability that has been previously accrued and make adjustments as appropriate. Significant judgment is required to determine both probability and the estimated amount of a loss or potential loss. We may be unable to reasonably estimate the reasonably possible loss or range of loss for a particular legal contingency for various reasons, including, among others, because: (i) the damages sought are indeterminate; (ii) the proceedings are in the relative early stages; (iii) there is uncertainty as to the outcome of pending proceedings (including motions and appeals); (iv) there is uncertainty as to the likelihood of settlement and the outcome of any negotiations with respect thereto; (v) there remain significant factual issues to be determined or resolved; (vi) the relevant law is unsettled; or (vii) the proceedings involve novel or untested legal theories. In such instances, there may be considerable uncertainty regarding the ultimate resolution of such matters, including the likelihood or magnitude of a possible eventual loss, if any.