Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2017
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements of Holdings and its subsidiaries have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for interim financial reporting. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the financial statements presented in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations.
Certain amounts in our prior period consolidated financial statements have been either reclassified to conform to our current period presentation or adjusted to reflect the adoption of Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, in the third quarter of 2016. All significant intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. In the opinion of our management, all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of our unaudited consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2017 and for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 and 2016 have been made.
Interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for a full year. This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read together with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016, which was filed with the SEC on February 2, 2017.
Public companies are required to disclose certain information about their reportable operating segments.  Operating segments are defined as significant components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is available and is evaluated on a regular basis by the chief operating decision makers in deciding how to allocate resources to an individual segment and in assessing performance of the segment. We have determined that we have one reportable segment as our chief operating decision maker, our Chief Executive Officer, assesses performance and allocates resources based on the consolidated results of operations of our business.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and footnotes.  Estimates, by their nature, are based on judgment and available information.  Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.  Significant estimates inherent in the preparation of the accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include asset impairment, depreciable lives of our satellites, share-based payment expense, and income taxes.
Fair Value Measurements
For assets and liabilities required to be reported at fair value, GAAP provides a hierarchy that prioritizes inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three broad levels. Level 1 inputs are based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical instruments. Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted market prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In January 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350).  This ASU eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Under the new guidance, entities should perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. Additionally, this ASU eliminates the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment and, if it fails that qualitative test, to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and is applied on a prospective basis. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. While we are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of this ASU, we do not believe that the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). This ASU requires a company to recognize lease assets and liabilities arising from operating leases in the statement of financial position. This ASU does not significantly change the previous lease guidance for how a lessee should recognize the recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease. Additionally, the criteria for classifying a finance lease versus an operating lease are substantially the same as the previous guidance. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted. This ASU must be adopted using a modified retrospective approach. We plan to adopt this ASU on January 1, 2019. Although we are in the process of evaluating the impact of adoption of the ASU on our consolidated financial statements, we currently believe the most significant changes will be related to the recognition of right-of-use assets and lease liability on our consolidated balance sheet for operating leases.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). This ASU is a comprehensive new revenue recognition model that requires a company to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. This ASU also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14 which amended the effective date of this ASU to fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and early adoption is permitted only for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016. In 2016, the FASB issued additional guidance which clarified principal versus agent considerations, identification of performance obligations and the implementation guidance for licensing. In addition, the FASB issued guidance regarding practical expedients related to disclosures of remaining performance obligations, as well as other amendments to guidance on transition, collectibility, non-cash consideration and the presentation of sales and other similar taxes. The two permitted transition methods under the new standard are the full retrospective method, in which case the standard would be applied to each prior reporting period presented, or the modified retrospective method, in which case the cumulative effect of applying the standard would be recognized at the date of initial application. We currently plan to adopt this ASU under the modified retrospective method.
We have substantially completed our evaluation of the impact this ASU will have on our subscription fees earned from self-pay subscribers and advertising revenue and, based on the preliminary results of our evaluation, we do not expect the application of this ASU to have a material impact on the recognition of these revenues. We are still evaluating the impact of this ASU as it relates to other ancillary revenue, as well as certain associated expenses. Depending on the results of our review, there could be changes to the classification and timing of recognition of revenues and expenses related to these ancillary areas. We expect to complete our assessment of this ASU by the end of the third quarter of 2017, along with our implementation process prior to the adoption of this ASU on January 1, 2018.
Earnings per Share
Basic net income per common share is calculated by dividing the income available to common stockholders by the weighted average common shares outstanding during each reporting period.  Diluted net income per common share adjusts the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the potential dilution that could occur if common stock equivalents (stock options and restricted stock units) were exercised or converted into common stock, calculated using the treasury stock method.
Receivables, net
Receivables, net, includes customer accounts receivable, receivables from distributors and other receivables.
Customer accounts receivable, net, includes receivables from our subscribers and other customers, including advertising, and is stated at amounts due, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. Our allowance for doubtful accounts is based upon our assessment of various factors.  We consider historical experience, the age of the receivable balances, current economic conditions and other factors that may affect the counterparty’s ability to pay.  Bad debt expense is included in Customer service and billing expense in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
Receivables from distributors primarily include billed and unbilled amounts due from OEMs for services included in the sale or lease price of vehicles, as well as billed amounts due from wholesale distributors of our satellite radios.  Other receivables primarily include amounts due from manufacturers of our radios, modules and chipsets where we are entitled to subsidies and royalties based on the number of units produced.  We have not established an allowance for doubtful accounts for our receivables from distributors or other receivables as we have historically not experienced any significant collection issues with OEMs or other third parties.
Inventory, net
Inventory consists of finished goods, refurbished goods, chipsets and other raw material components used in manufacturing radios and devices. Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market.  We record an estimated allowance for inventory that is considered slow moving or obsolete or whose carrying value is in excess of net realizable value.  The provision related to products purchased for resale in our direct to consumer distribution channel and components held for resale by us is reported as a component of Cost of equipment in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.  The provision related to inventory consumed in our OEM channel is reported as a component of Subscriber acquisition costs in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired in business combinations.  Our annual impairment assessment of our single reporting unit is performed as of the fourth quarter of each year, and an assessment is performed at other times if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount.  If the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized. As a result of the acquisition of Automatic, we recorded additional goodwill of $85,133 during the three and six months ended June 30, 2017.
Indefinite Life Intangible Assets
Our annual impairment assessment of our identifiable indefinite life intangible assets is performed as of the fourth quarter of each year. An assessment is performed at other times if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the asset below its carrying value. If the carrying value of the intangible assets exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized.
Legal Costs
We record a liability when we believe that it is both probable that a liability will be incurred, and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. We evaluate developments in legal matters that could affect the amount of liability that has been previously accrued and make adjustments as appropriate.  Significant judgment is required to determine both probability and the estimated amount of a loss or potential loss.  We may be unable to estimate the reasonably possible loss or range of loss for a particular legal contingency for various reasons, including, among others, because: (i) the damages sought are indeterminate; (ii) the proceedings are in the relative early stages; (iii) there is uncertainty as to the outcome of pending proceedings (including motions and appeals); (iv) there is uncertainty as to the likelihood of settlement and the outcome of any negotiations with respect thereto; (v) there remain significant factual issues to be determined or resolved; (vi) the relevant law is unsettled; or (vii) the proceedings involve novel or untested legal theories.  In such instances, there may be considerable uncertainty regarding the ultimate resolution of such matters, including a possible eventual loss, if any.