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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
 QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED MARCH 31, 2024
OR
 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM __________ TO ________
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 001-34295
SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 38-3916511
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1221 Avenue of the Americas, 35th Floor, New York, NY
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
10020
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (212584-5100
Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report: Not Applicable
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.001 par valueSIRI
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☑        No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☑        No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
(Class)(Outstanding as of April 26, 2024)
Common stock, $0.001 par value3,846,631,694shares


Table of Contents

SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
INDEX TO FORM 10-Q

Item No.Description

1

Table of Contents


SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(UNAUDITED)
 For the Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions, except per share data)20242023
Revenue:  
Subscriber revenue$1,680 $1,691 
Advertising revenue402 375 
Equipment revenue50 46 
Other revenue30 32 
Total revenue2,162 2,144 
Operating expenses:  
Cost of services:  
Revenue share and royalties703 700 
Programming and content157 150 
Customer service and billing116 122 
Transmission59 49 
Cost of equipment2 3 
Subscriber acquisition costs90 90 
Sales and marketing229 224 
Engineering, design and development86 79 
General and administrative115 147 
Depreciation and amortization140 136 
Impairment, restructuring and acquisition costs28 32 
Total operating expenses1,725 1,732 
Income from operations437 412 
Other (expense) income:  
Interest expense(104)(107)
Other income12 3 
Total other expense(92)(104)
Income before income taxes345 308 
Income tax expense(80)(75)
Net income$265 $233 
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax(7) 
Total comprehensive income$258 $233 
Net income per common share:  
Basic$0.07 $0.06 
Diluted$0.07 $0.06 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:  
Basic3,845 3,889 
Diluted3,865 3,939 
 
See accompanying notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

2

Table of Contents


SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in millions, except per share data)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
ASSETS(unaudited)
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$71 $216 
Receivables, net614 709 
Related party current assets33 36 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets360 310 
Total current assets1,078 1,271 
Property and equipment, net1,820 1,754 
Intangible assets, net2,882 2,905 
Goodwill3,249 3,249 
Equity method investments
1,465 526 
Deferred tax assets155 155 
Operating lease right-of-use assets290 279 
Other long-term assets235 235 
Total assets$11,174 $10,374 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)  
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable and accrued expenses$1,170 $1,306 
Accrued interest72 166 
Current portion of deferred revenue1,162 1,195 
Current maturities of debt505 505 
Operating lease current liabilities46 46 
Related party current liabilities133 8 
Total current liabilities3,088 3,226 
Long-term deferred revenue84 88 
Long-term debt8,722 8,690 
Deferred tax liabilities488 509 
Operating lease liabilities304 292 
Other long-term liabilities858 134 
Total liabilities13,544 12,939 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 14)
Stockholders’ equity (deficit):  
Common stock, par value $0.001 per share; 9,000 shares authorized; 3,847 and 3,843 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
4 4 
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax
(4)3 
Accumulated deficit(2,370)(2,572)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)(2,370)(2,565)
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity (deficit)$11,174 $10,374 

See accompanying notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements.
3

Table of Contents

SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
(UNAUDITED)
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Common StockAccumulated Other Comprehensive (Loss) IncomeAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Treasury StockAccumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
(in millions)SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 20233,843 $4 $3 $  $ $(2,572)$(2,565)
Cumulative effect of change in accounting principles— — — — — — 3 3 
Comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax— — (7)— — — 265 258 
Share-based payment expense— — — 50 — — — 50 
Exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units4 — —  — — —  
Withholding taxes on net share settlement of stock-based compensation— — — (14)— — — (14)
Cash dividends paid on common stock, $0.0266 per share
— — — (36)— — (66)(102)
Balance at March 31, 20243,847 4 (4)   (2,370)(2,370)

See accompanying notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements.
4

Table of Contents

SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
(UNAUDITED)
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Common StockAccumulated Other Comprehensive LossAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Treasury StockAccumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
(in millions)SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 20223,891 $4 $(4)$  $ $(3,351)$(3,351)
Comprehensive income, net of tax— — — — — — 233 233 
Share-based payment expense — — — 48 — — — 48 
Exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units4 — — — — — — — 
Withholding taxes on net share settlement of stock-based compensation— — — (14)— — — (14)
Capital contribution to Liberty Media related to Tax Sharing Agreement— — — — — — (14)(14)
Cash dividends paid on common stock, $0.0242 per share
— — — (34)— — (60)(94)
Common stock repurchased — — — — 17 (67)— (67)
Common stock retired (16)— — — (16)62 (62) 
Balance at March 31, 20233,879 $4 $(4)$ 1 $(5)$(3,254)$(3,259)

See accompanying notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements.
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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(UNAUDITED)
 For the Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Cash flows from operating activities:  
Net income$265 $233 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization140 136 
Non-cash impairment and restructuring costs1 8 
Non-cash interest expense, net of amortization of premium4 3 
Provision for doubtful accounts13 14 
Loss on unconsolidated entity investments, net15  
Gain on other investments(3)(2)
Share-based payment expense45 45 
Deferred income tax benefit
(14)(52)
Amortization of right-of-use assets11 10 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:  
Receivables82 53 
Related party, net44 88 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(50)(38)
Other long-term assets7 6 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(137)(57)
Accrued interest(93)(93)
Deferred revenue(36)(17)
Operating lease liabilities(11)(10)
Other long-term liabilities25 23 
Net cash provided by operating activities308 350 
Cash flows from investing activities:  
Additions to property and equipment(174)(205)
Purchase of other investments
(2)(1)
Investments in related parties and other equity investees(187)(29)
Net cash used in investing activities(363)(235)
Cash flows from financing activities:  
Taxes paid from net share settlements for stock-based compensation(14)(14)
Revolving credit facility borrowings
230 548 
Revolving credit facility repayments
(200)(418)
Principal payments of long-term borrowings(3)(77)
Other financing activities(1)(2)
Common stock repurchased and retired (62)
Dividends paid(102)(94)
Net cash used in financing activities(90)(119)
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(145)(4)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period (1)
224 65 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period (1)
$79 $61 

See accompanying notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements.
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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)

For the Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Supplemental Disclosure of Cash and Non-Cash Flow Information
Cash paid during the period for:
Interest, net of amounts capitalized$193 $195 
Income taxes paid$2 $ 
Non-cash investing and financing activities:
Finance lease obligations incurred to acquire assets
$ $4 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax
$(7)$ 
Capital contribution from Liberty Media pursuant to Tax Sharing Agreement
$ $14 
Accrued tax equity investments
$779 $ 


(1)The following table reconciles cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash per the statement of cash flows to the balance sheet. The restricted cash balances are primarily due to letters of credit which have been issued to the landlords of leased office space. The terms of the letters of credit primarily extend beyond one year.
(in millions)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023March 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Cash and cash equivalents$71 $216 $53 $57 
Restricted cash included in Other long-term assets8 8 8 8 
Total cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period$79 $224 $61 $65 

See accompanying notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)

(1)Business & Basis of Presentation
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q presents information for Sirius XM Holdings Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively “Holdings”).  The terms “Holdings,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and “our company” as used herein, and unless otherwise stated or indicated by context, refer to Sirius XM Holdings Inc. and its subsidiaries. “Sirius XM” refers to our wholly owned subsidiary Sirius XM Radio Inc. and its subsidiaries. “Pandora” refers to Sirius XM's wholly owned subsidiary Pandora Media, LLC and its subsidiaries. Holdings has no operations independent of Sirius XM and Pandora.
Business
We operate two complementary audio entertainment businesses - one of which we refer to as “SiriusXM” and the second of which we refer to as “Pandora and Off-platform”. 
SiriusXM
Our SiriusXM business features music, sports, entertainment, comedy, talk, news, traffic and weather channels and other content, as well as podcasts and infotainment services, in the United States on a subscription fee basis. SiriusXM packages include live, curated and certain exclusive and on demand programming. The SiriusXM service is distributed through our two proprietary satellite radio systems and streamed via applications for mobile devices, home devices and other consumer electronic equipment. Satellite radios are primarily distributed through automakers, retailers and our website. Our Sirius XM service is also available through our in-car user interface, which we call “360L,” that combines our satellite and streaming services into a single, cohesive in-vehicle entertainment experience.
The primary source of revenue from our SiriusXM business is subscription fees, with most of our customers subscribing to monthly, quarterly, semi-annual or annual plans.  We also derive revenue from advertising on select non-music channels, which is sold under the SiriusXM Media brand, direct sales of our satellite radios and accessories, and other ancillary services.  As of March 31, 2024, our SiriusXM business had approximately 33.4 million subscribers.
In addition to our audio entertainment businesses, we provide connected vehicle services to several automakers. These services are designed to enhance the safety, security and driving experience of consumers. We also offer a suite of data services that includes graphical weather and fuel prices, a traffic information service, and real-time weather services in boats and airplanes.
SiriusXM also holds a 70% equity interest and 33% voting interest in Sirius XM Canada Holdings Inc. (“Sirius XM Canada”). Sirius XM Canada's subscribers are not included in our subscriber count or subscriber-based operating metrics.
Pandora and Off-platform
Our Pandora and Off-platform business operates a music, comedy and podcast streaming discovery platform, offering a personalized experience for each listener wherever and whenever they want to listen, whether through mobile devices, vehicle speakers or connected devices.  Pandora enables listeners to create personalized stations and playlists, discover new content, hear artist- and expert-curated playlists, podcasts as well as search and play songs and albums on-demand.  Pandora is available as (1) an ad-supported radio service, (2) a radio subscription service (Pandora Plus) and (3) an on-demand subscription service (Pandora Premium).  As of March 31, 2024, Pandora had approximately 5.9 million subscribers.
The majority of revenue from Pandora is generated from advertising on our Pandora ad-supported radio service which is sold under the SiriusXM Media brand. We also derive subscription revenue from our Pandora Plus and Pandora Premium subscribers.
We also sell advertising on other audio platforms and in widely distributed podcasts, which we consider to be off-platform services. We have an arrangement with SoundCloud Holdings, LLC (“SoundCloud”) to be its exclusive ad sales representative in the US and certain European countries and offer advertisers the ability to execute campaigns across the Pandora and SoundCloud platforms. We also have arrangements to serve as the ad sales representative for certain podcasts. In addition, through AdsWizz Inc., we provide a comprehensive digital audio and programmatic advertising technology platform,
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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
which connects audio publishers and advertisers with a variety of ad insertion, campaign trafficking, yield optimization, programmatic buying, marketplace and podcast monetization solutions.
Liberty Media
As of March 31, 2024, Liberty Media Corporation (“Liberty Media”) beneficially owned, directly and indirectly, 83.3% of the outstanding shares of our common stock.  As a result, we are a “controlled company” for the purposes of the NASDAQ corporate governance requirements. Refer to Note 10 for more information regarding related parties.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements of Holdings have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). All significant intercompany transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain numbers in our prior period unaudited consolidated financial statements and footnotes have been reclassified or consolidated to conform to our current period presentation.
In the opinion of our management, all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of our unaudited consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2024 and for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 have been made.
Interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for a full year. This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read together with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, which was filed with the SEC on February 1, 2024.
Public companies are required to disclose certain information about their reportable operating segments.  Operating segments are defined as significant components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is available and is evaluated on a regular basis by the chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources to an individual segment and in assessing performance of the segment. We have determined that we have two reportable segments as our chief operating decision maker, our Chief Executive Officer, assesses performance and allocates resources based on the financial results of these segments. Refer to Note 16 for information related to our segments.
We have evaluated events subsequent to the balance sheet date and prior to the filing of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and have determined that no events have occurred that would require adjustment to our unaudited consolidated financial statements.  For a discussion of subsequent events that do not require adjustment to our unaudited consolidated financial statements refer to Note 17.
As previously disclosed, we identified an error in our previously issued unaudited consolidated financial statements related to the presentation of cash flows associated with borrowings and repayments related to our Senior Secured Credit Facility. We have corrected this error in the accompanying unaudited consolidated statements of cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2023 to present on a gross basis the borrowings from the revolving credit facility of $548 and repayments of the revolving credit facility of $418. The corrections had no impact to the total net cash used in financing activities in the period. We evaluated the materiality of this error both qualitatively and quantitatively and have concluded that this error is immaterial to the impacted period.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and footnotes.  Estimates, by their nature, are based on judgment and available information.  Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.  Significant estimates inherent in the preparation of the accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements include asset impairment, depreciable lives of our satellites, share-based payment expense and income taxes.

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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
(2)Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting Standard Update 2023-09, Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures (“ASU 2023-09”). In December 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2023-09, which requires more detailed income tax disclosures. The guidance requires entities to disclose disaggregated information about their effective tax rate reconciliation as well as expanded information on income taxes paid by jurisdiction. The disclosure requirements will be applied on a prospective basis, with the option to apply them retrospectively. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. We are evaluating the disclosure requirements related to the new standard.
Accounting Standard Update 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures ("ASU 2023-07"). In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-07, which is intended to improve reportable segment disclosure requirements, primarily through additional disclosures about significant segment expenses. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. The amendments should be applied retrospectively to all prior periods presented in the financial statements. We are evaluating the disclosure requirements related to the new standard.
Recently Adopted Accounting Policies
In March 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-02, Accounting for Investments in Tax Credit Structures Using the Proportional Amortization Method, which expands the population of investments for which an investor may elect to apply the proportional amortization method. Under this ASU, an investor in a tax equity investment may elect the proportional amortization method for qualifying investments on a tax credit program-by-program basis. This ASU became effective in the first quarter of 2024. We adopted ASU 2023-02 as of January 1, 2024 using the modified retrospective approach.
Adoption of the new standard resulted in the recording of additional Equity method investments, Related party current liabilities, Other Long-term liabilities, Deferred tax liabilities and a cumulative effect adjustment to opening accumulated deficit. The effects of the changes made to our unaudited consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2024 for the adoption of ASU 2023-02 are included in the table below.
Balance at December 31, 2023
Adjustments Due to ASU 2023-02
Balance at January 1, 2024
Balance Sheet
Equity method investments
$526 $122 $648 
Related party current liabilities
$8 $15 $23 
Other long-term liabilities
$134 $109 $243 
Deferred tax liabilities
$509 $(5)$504 
Accumulated deficit
$(2,572)$3 $(2,569)
Fair Value Measurements
For assets and liabilities required to be reported at fair value, GAAP provides a hierarchy that prioritizes inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three broad levels. Level 1 inputs are based on unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical instruments. Level 2 inputs are inputs, other than quoted market prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, receivables and accounts payable approximated fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
Our liabilities measured at fair value were as follows:
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
 Level 1Level 2Level 3Total Fair ValueLevel 1Level 2Level 3Total Fair Value
Liabilities:        
Debt (a)
 $8,478  $8,478  $8,523  $8,523 
(a)The fair value for non-publicly traded debt is based upon estimates from a market maker and brokerage firm.  Refer to Note 11 for information related to the carrying value of our debt as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.

(3)Restructuring Costs
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we further realigned our business to focus on strategic priorities, reducing the size of our workforce, and recorded a charge of $12 primarily related to severance and other related costs. The restructuring charges were recorded to Impairment, restructuring and acquisition costs in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
During the three months ended March 31, 2023, we initiated measures to pursue greater efficiency and to realign our business and focus on strategic priorities. As part of these measures, we reduced the size of our workforce by approximately 475 roles, or 8%. We recorded a charge of $23 primarily related to severance and other employee costs. In addition, we vacated one of our leased locations. We assessed the recoverability of the carrying value of the operating lease right of use asset related to this location and determined that the carrying value of the asset was not recoverable. As a result, we recorded an impairment of $5 to reduce the carrying value of the asset to its estimated fair value. Additionally, we accrued expenses of $2 for which we will not recognize any future economic benefits, and we wrote off fixed assets of less than $1 in connection with furniture and equipment located at the impaired office space. The total restructuring and related impairment charge of $30 was recorded to Impairment, restructuring and acquisition costs in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income for the three months ended March 31, 2023.

(4)Earnings per Share
Basic net income per common share is calculated by dividing the income available to common stockholders by the weighted average common shares outstanding during each reporting period.  Diluted net income per common share adjusts the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the potential dilution that could occur if common stock equivalents (stock options, restricted stock units and convertible debt) were exercised or converted into common stock, calculated using the treasury stock method. We had no participating securities during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
Common stock equivalents of 143 and 162 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, were excluded from the calculation of diluted net income per common share as the effect would have been anti-dilutive.
 For the Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Numerator:
Net Income available to common stockholders for basic net income per common share$265 $233 
Effect of interest on assumed conversions of convertible notes, net of tax 1 
Net Income available to common stockholders for dilutive net income per common share$265 $234 
Denominator: 
Weighted average common shares outstanding for basic net income per common share3,845 3,889 
Weighted average impact of assumed convertible notes 32 
Weighted average impact of dilutive equity instruments20 18 
Weighted average shares for diluted net income per common share3,865 3,939 
Net income per common share: 
Basic$0.07 $0.06 
Diluted$0.07 $0.06 

(5)Receivables, net
Receivables, net, includes customer accounts receivable, receivables from distributors and other receivables. We do not have any customer receivables that individually represent more than ten percent of our receivables.
Customer accounts receivable, net, includes receivables from our subscribers and advertising customers, including advertising agencies and other customers, and is stated at amounts due, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. Our allowance for doubtful accounts is based upon our assessment of various factors.  We consider historical experience, the age of the receivable balances, current economic conditions, industry experience and other factors that may affect the counterparty’s ability to pay.  Bad debt expense is included in Customer service and billing expense in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
Receivables from distributors primarily include billed and unbilled amounts due from automakers for services included in the sale or lease price of vehicles, as well as billed amounts due from wholesale distributors of our satellite radios.  Other receivables primarily include amounts due from manufacturers of our radios, modules and chipsets where we are entitled to subsidies and royalties based on the number of units produced.  We have not established an allowance for doubtful accounts for our receivables from distributors or other receivables as we have historically not experienced any significant collection issues with automakers or other third parties and do not expect issues in the foreseeable future.
Receivables, net, consists of the following:
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Gross customer accounts receivable$553 $631 
Allowance for doubtful accounts(14)(15)
Customer accounts receivable, net$539 $616 
Receivables from distributors52 56 
Other receivables23 37 
Total receivables, net$614 $709 

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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
(6)Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired in business combinations. Our annual impairment assessment of our two reporting units is performed as of the fourth quarter of each year, and an assessment is performed at other times if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. ASC 350, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other, states that an entity should perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. Our Sirius XM reporting unit, which has an allocated goodwill balance of $2,290, had a negative carrying amount as of March 31, 2024.
As of March 31, 2024, there were no indicators of impairment, and no impairment losses were recorded for goodwill during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. As of March 31, 2024, the cumulative balance of goodwill impairments recorded was $5,722, of which $4,766 was recognized during the year ended December 31, 2008 and is included in the carrying amount of the goodwill allocated to our Sirius XM reporting unit and $956 was recognized during the year ended December 31, 2020 and is included in the carrying amount of the goodwill allocated to our Pandora and Off-platform reporting unit.
As of each of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the carrying amount of goodwill for our Sirius XM and Pandora and Off-platform reporting units was $2,290 and $959, respectively.

(7)Intangible Assets
Our intangible assets include the following:
  March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
 Weighted
Average
Useful Lives
Gross
Carrying
Value
Accumulated AmortizationNet 
Carrying
Value
Gross
Carrying
Value
Accumulated AmortizationNet 
Carrying
Value
Indefinite life intangible assets:
       
FCC licensesIndefinite$2,084 $— $2,084 $2,084 $— $2,084 
TrademarksIndefinite250 — 250 250 — 250 
Definite life intangible assets:       
OEM relationships15 years220 (152)68 220 (149)71 
Licensing agreements12 years3 (3) 3 (3) 
Software and technology7 years28 (22)6 28 (22)6 
Due to Acquisitions recorded to Pandora
and Off-platform Reporting Unit:
Indefinite life intangible assets:
TrademarksIndefinite312 — 312 312 — 312 
Definite life intangible assets:
Customer relationships8 years442 (292)150 442 (279)163 
Software and technology5 years391 (379)12 391 (372)19 
Total intangible assets $3,730 $(848)$2,882 $3,730 $(825)$2,905 

Indefinite Life Intangible Assets
We have identified our FCC licenses and XM and Pandora trademarks as indefinite life intangible assets after considering the expected use of the assets, the regulatory and economic environment within which they are used and the effects of obsolescence on their use.
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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
We hold FCC licenses to operate our satellite digital audio radio service and provide ancillary services. Each of the FCC licenses authorizes us to use radio spectrum, a reusable resource that does not deplete or exhaust over time.
Our annual impairment assessment of our identifiable indefinite lived intangible assets is performed as of the fourth quarter of each year. An assessment is performed at other times if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the asset below its carrying value. If the carrying value of the intangible assets exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. As of March 31, 2024, there were no indicators of impairment, and no impairment loss was recognized for intangible assets with indefinite lives during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
Definite Life Intangible Assets
Amortization expense for all definite life intangible assets was $24 and $37 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. There were no retirements or impairments of definite lived intangible assets during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
The expected amortization expense for each of the fiscal years 2024 through 2028 and for periods thereafter is as follows:
Years ending December 31,Amount
2024$54 
202571 
202671 
202725 
202815 
Thereafter 
Total definite life intangible assets, net$236 

(8)Property and Equipment
Property and equipment, net, consists of the following:
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Satellite system$1,598 $1,598 
Terrestrial repeater network117 117 
Leasehold improvements112 106 
Broadcast studio equipment152 146 
Capitalized software and hardware2,174 2,178 
Satellite telemetry, tracking and control facilities85 84 
Furniture, fixtures, equipment and other109 110 
Land32 32 
Building74 74 
Construction in progress706 538 
Total property and equipment5,159 4,983 
Accumulated depreciation(3,339)(3,229)
Property and equipment, net$1,820 $1,754 
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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
Construction in progress consists of the following:
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Satellite system$565 $490 
Terrestrial repeater network8 7 
Capitalized software and hardware115 17 
Other18 24 
Construction in progress$706 $538 
Depreciation and amortization expense on property and equipment was $116 and $99 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, we recorded impairment charges of $1 and $2, respectively, primarily related to terminated software projects.
We capitalize a portion of the interest on funds borrowed to finance the construction and launch of our satellites. Capitalized interest is recorded as part of the asset’s cost and depreciated over the satellite’s useful life. Capitalized interest costs were $6 and $3 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, which related to the construction of our SXM-9, SXM-10, SXM-11 and SXM-12 satellites. We also capitalize a portion of share-based compensation related to employee time for capitalized software projects. Capitalized share-based compensation costs were $5 for each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
Satellites
As of March 31, 2024, we operated a fleet of five satellites.  Each satellite requires an FCC license, and prior to the expiration of each license, we are required to apply for a renewal of the FCC satellite license.  The renewal and extension of our licenses is reasonably certain at minimal cost, which is expensed as incurred. The chart below provides certain information on our satellites as of March 31, 2024:
Satellite DescriptionYear DeliveredEstimated End of
Depreciable Life
FCC License Expiration Year
SIRIUS FM-5200920242025
SIRIUS FM-6201320282030
XM-3200520202026
XM-5201020252026
SXM-8202120362029
Our XM-3 satellite remains available as an in-orbit spare.

(9)Leases
We have operating and finance leases for offices, terrestrial repeaters, data centers and certain equipment. Our leases have remaining lease terms of less than 1 year to 19 years, some of which may include options to extend the leases for up to 5 years, and some of which may include options to terminate the leases within 1 year. We elected the practical expedient to account for the lease and non-lease components as a single component. Additionally, we elected the practical expedient to not recognize right-of-use assets or lease liabilities for short-term leases, which are those leases with a term of twelve months or less at the lease commencement date.
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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
The components of lease expense were as follows:
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Operating lease cost$15 $21 
Finance lease cost2  
Sublease income(1)(1)
Total lease cost$16 $20 

During the three months ended March 31, 2023, we ceased using one of our leased locations and recorded an impairment charge of $5 to write down the carrying value of the right-of-use asset to its estimated fair value. Refer to Note 3 for additional information.

(10)Related Party Transactions 
In the normal course of business, we enter into transactions with related parties such as Sirius XM Canada, SoundCloud and our tax equity investments.

Liberty Media
As of March 31, 2024, Liberty Media beneficially owned, directly and indirectly, 83.3% of the outstanding shares of our common stock. Liberty Media has three of its executives and one of its directors on our board of directors.  Gregory B. Maffei, the President and Chief Executive Officer of Liberty Media, is the Chairman of our board of directors.
On February 1, 2021, Holdings entered into a tax sharing agreement with Liberty Media governing the allocation of consolidated U.S. income tax liabilities and setting forth agreements with respect to other tax matters. The tax sharing agreement was negotiated and approved by a special committee of Holdings’ board of directors, all of whom are independent of Liberty Media. Refer to Note 15 for more information regarding the tax sharing agreement.
On December 11, 2023, Holdings entered into definitive agreements whereby, subject to the terms thereof, Liberty Sirius XM Holdings Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of Liberty Media (“New Sirius”), would split-off from Liberty Media. The transactions would be effectuated by means of a redemptive split-off of New Sirius (the “Split-Off”), which will own all of the assets and liabilities attributed to Liberty Media’s Series A Liberty SiriusXM common stock (“LSXMA”), Series B Liberty SiriusXM common stock (“LSXMB”) and Series C Liberty SiriusXM common stock (“LSXMK”, together with the LSXMB and LSXMA stock, the “Liberty SiriusXM Group”). Following the Split-Off, New Sirius will combine with Holdings through the merger of Radio Merger Sub, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and a wholly owned subsidiary of New Sirius (“Merger Sub”), with Holdings, with Holdings becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of New Sirius (the “Merger” and, together with the Split-Off, the “Transactions”). As part of the Merger, New Sirius will be renamed “Sirius XM Holdings Inc.”
To effect the Transactions, on December 11, 2023, Liberty Media entered into (i) a Reorganization Agreement (the “Reorganization Agreement”) with Holdings and New Sirius, and (ii) an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”) with New Sirius, Holdings and Merger Sub.
In connection with the Merger Agreement and the Reorganization Agreement, on December 11, 2023, certain trusts related to Dr. John C. Malone (collectively, the “Malone Stockholders”) entered into a voting agreement (the “Voting Agreement”) with Liberty Media, Holdings and New Sirius, pursuant to which, among other things, the Malone Stockholders agreed, subject to the terms of the Voting Agreement, to vote their respective shares of Liberty Media’s LSXMA and LSXMB in favor of the Split-Off.
The Transactions have been unanimously approved by Liberty Media’s Board of Directors and a Special Committee of the Board of Directors of Holdings and by Holdings’ Board of Directors. The Transactions are expected to be completed early in the third quarter of 2024, subject to approval by a majority of the aggregate voting power of the shares of Liberty SiriusXM common stock present, whether in-person or by proxy, at a stockholder meeting, the receipt by Liberty Media and New Sirius of tax opinions from their respective tax counsel, as well as the receipt of required regulatory approvals and the satisfaction of
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(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
other customary closing conditions. A subsidiary of Liberty Media owning a majority of the outstanding shares of Holdings has delivered a written consent approving the Transactions on behalf of a majority of Holdings’ stockholders. Following the Transactions, Liberty Media and New Sirius will operate independently, and neither is expected to have any ownership interest in the other. All of the executive officers of Holdings immediately prior to consummation of the Transactions will be the initial executive officers of New Sirius, and New Sirius will continue to operate under the SiriusXM name and brand.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we recognized costs associated with the Transactions of $15 which were recorded to Impairment, restructuring and acquisition costs in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.

Sirius XM Canada
Sirius XM holds a 70% equity interest and 33% voting interest in Sirius XM Canada, a privately held corporation. We own 591 shares of preferred stock of Sirius XM Canada, which has a liquidation preference of one Canadian dollar per share.
Sirius XM Canada is accounted for as an equity method investment, and its results are not consolidated in our unaudited consolidated financial statements. Sirius XM Canada does not meet the requirements for consolidation as we do not have the ability to direct the most significant activities that impact Sirius XM Canada's economic performance.
On March 15, 2022, Sirius XM and Sirius XM Canada entered into an amended and restated services and distribution agreement. Pursuant to the amended and restated services and distribution agreement, the fee payable by Sirius XM Canada to Sirius XM was modified from a fixed percentage of revenue to a variable fee, based on a target operating profit for Sirius XM Canada. Such variable fee is expected to be evaluated annually based on comparable companies. In accordance with the amended and restated services and distribution agreement, the fee is payable on a monthly basis, in arrears, beginning January 1, 2022.
Our Equity method investments as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 included the carrying value of our investment balance in Sirius XM Canada of $418 and $423, respectively, and, as of each of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, also included $8, for the long-term value of the outstanding loan to Sirius XM Canada.

Sirius XM Canada paid gross dividends to us of less than $1 during each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. Dividends are first recorded as a reduction to our investment balance in Sirius XM Canada to the extent a balance exists and then as Other (expense) income for any remaining portion.
We recorded revenue from Sirius XM Canada as Other revenue in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income of $24 and $26 during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

SoundCloud
We have an investment in SoundCloud which is accounted for as an equity method investment and recorded in Equity method investments in our unaudited consolidated balance sheets. Sirius XM has appointed two individuals to serve on SoundCloud's ten-member board of managers. Sirius XM's share of SoundCloud's earnings (loss) was less than $1 and $(1) for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, which was recorded in Other (expense) income in our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
In addition to our investment in SoundCloud, Pandora has an agreement with SoundCloud to be its exclusive ad sales representative in the US and certain European countries. Through this arrangement, Pandora offers advertisers the ability to execute campaigns across the Pandora and SoundCloud platforms. We recorded revenue share expense related to this agreement of $15 and $12 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. We also had related party liabilities of $20 as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, related to this agreement.
Tax equity investments
Sirius XM has entered into certain tax-effective clean energy technology investments. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, we invested $187 and $29 in these investments, respectively. As of January 1, 2024, we adopted ASU 2023-02 using the modified retrospective approach and have accounted for these investments using the proportional amortization method. The unamortized investment balance as of March 31, 2024 was $972 and was recorded to Equity method investments in our unaudited consolidated balance sheets. Under the proportional amortization method the investment balance
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(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
will be amortized over the term of the investments based on the current period income tax benefits as a proportion to the total expected income tax benefits. We also recorded liabilities of $783 related to future contractual payments and contingent payments which we determined to be probable, of which $85 is recorded in Related party current liabilities and the balance is recorded in Other long-term liabilities in our unaudited consolidated balance sheets.

(11)Debt
Our debt as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 consisted of the following:
     Principal Amount at
Carrying value(a) at
Issuer / BorrowerIssuedDebtMaturity DateInterest
Payable
March 31, 2024March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Sirius XM
(b) (d) (e)
April 2022Incremental Term LoanApril 11, 2024variable fee paid monthly500 500 500 
Sirius XM
(b)
August 2021
3.125% Senior Notes
September 1, 2026semi-annually on March 1 and September 11,000 994 994 
Sirius XM
(b)
July 2017
5.00% Senior Notes
August 1, 2027semi-annually on February 1 and August 11,500 1,494 1,494 
Sirius XM
(b)
June 2021
4.00% Senior Notes
July 15, 2028semi-annually on January 15 and July 152,000 1,986 1,985 
Sirius XM
(b)
June 2019
5.500% Senior Notes
July 1, 2029semi-annually on January 1 and July 11,250 1,242 1,241 
Sirius XM
(b)
June 2020
4.125% Senior Notes
July 1, 2030semi-annually on January 1 and July 11,500 1,489 1,488 
Sirius XM
(b)
August 2021
3.875% Senior Notes
September 1, 2031semi-annually on March 1 and September 11,500 1,487 1,487 
Sirius XM
(c)
December 2012Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility (the "Credit Facility")August 31, 2026variable fee paid quarterly30 30  
Sirius XMVariousFinance leasesVarious n/a n/a14 15 
Total Debt9,236 9,204 
Less: total current maturities505 505 
Less: total deferred financing costs9 9 
Total long-term debt$8,722 $8,690 
(a)The carrying value of the obligations is net of any remaining unamortized original issue discount.
(b)All material domestic subsidiaries, including Pandora and its subsidiaries, that guarantee the Credit Facility have guaranteed the Incremental Term Loan and these notes.
(c)In August 2021, Sirius XM entered into an amendment to extend the maturity of the $1,750 Credit Facility to August 31, 2026. Sirius XM's obligations under the Credit Facility are guaranteed by its material domestic subsidiaries, including Pandora and its subsidiaries, and are secured by a lien on substantially all of Sirius XM's assets and the assets of its material domestic subsidiaries.  Sirius XM's borrowings are based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) plus an applicable rate based on its debt to operating cash flow ratio. Sirius XM is also required to pay a variable fee on the average daily unused portion of the Credit Facility which is payable on a quarterly basis.  The variable rate for the unused portion of the Credit Facility was 0.25% per annum as of March 31, 2024.  All of Sirius XM's outstanding borrowings under the Credit Facility are classified as Long-term debt within our unaudited consolidated balance sheets due to the long-term maturity of this debt.
(d)In April 2022, Sirius XM entered into an amendment to the Credit Facility to incorporate an Incremental Term Loan borrowing of $500 which matures on April 11, 2024. Interest on the Incremental Term Loan borrowing is based on SOFR plus an applicable rate. On April 11, 2024, the Incremental Term Loan borrowing of $500 matured and was retired with cash for 100% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of maturity.
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(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
(e)On January 26, 2024, Sirius XM entered into an amendment to the Credit Facility to, among other things, incorporate a $1,100 delayed draw incremental term loan. Subject to the conditions described in the amendment, the delayed draw incremental term loan shall be available to be drawn by Sirius XM in up to three separate drawings until December 31, 2024. If drawn, interest on the delayed draw incremental term loan is based on SOFR plus an applicable rate.
Covenants and Restrictions
Under the Credit Facility, Sirius XM, our wholly owned subsidiary, must comply with a debt maintenance covenant that it cannot exceed a total leverage ratio, calculated as consolidated total debt to consolidated operating cash flow, of 5.0 to 1.0.  The Credit Facility generally requires compliance with certain covenants that restrict Sirius XM's ability to, among other things, (i) incur additional indebtedness, (ii) incur liens, (iii) pay dividends or make certain other restricted payments, investments or acquisitions, (iv) enter into certain transactions with affiliates, (v) merge or consolidate with another person, (vi) sell, assign, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of Sirius XM's assets, and (vii) make voluntary prepayments of certain debt, in each case subject to exceptions.
The indentures governing Sirius XM's notes restrict Sirius XM's non-guarantor subsidiaries' ability to create, assume, incur or guarantee additional indebtedness without such non-guarantor subsidiary guaranteeing each such series of notes on a pari passu basis.  The indentures governing the notes also contain covenants that, among other things, limit Sirius XM's ability and the ability of its subsidiaries to create certain liens; enter into sale/leaseback transactions; and merge or consolidate.
Under Sirius XM's debt agreements, the following generally constitute an event of default: (i) a default in the payment of interest; (ii) a default in the payment of principal; (iii) failure to comply with covenants; (iv) failure to pay other indebtedness after final maturity or acceleration of other indebtedness exceeding a specified amount; (v) certain events of bankruptcy; (vi) a judgment for payment of money exceeding a specified aggregate amount; and (vii) voidance of subsidiary guarantees, subject to grace periods where applicable.  If an event of default occurs and is continuing, our debt could become immediately due and payable.
At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with our debt covenants.

(12)Stockholders’ Equity
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
We are authorized to issue up to 9,000 shares of common stock. There were 3,847 and 3,843 shares of common stock issued and outstanding on March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
As of March 31, 2024, there were 223 shares of common stock reserved for issuance in connection with outstanding stock-based awards to members of our board of directors, employees and third parties.
Quarterly Dividends
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, our board of directors declared and paid the following dividend:
Declaration DateDividend Per ShareRecord DateTotal AmountPayment Date
January 24, 2024$0.0266 February 9, 2024$102 February 23, 2024
Stock Repurchase Program
As of March 31, 2024, our board of directors had approved for repurchase an aggregate of $18,000 of our common stock.  Our board of directors did not establish an end date for this stock repurchase program.  Shares of common stock may be purchased from time to time on the open market, pursuant to pre-set trading plans meeting the requirements of Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, in privately negotiated transactions, including transactions with Liberty Media and its affiliates, or otherwise.  As of March 31, 2024, our cumulative repurchases since December 2012 under our stock repurchase program totaled 3,731 shares for $16,834, and $1,166 remained available for future share repurchases under our stock repurchase program. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we did not repurchase any shares of our common stock.
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The following table summarizes our total share repurchase activity for the three months ended:
 March 31, 2024March 31, 2023
Share Repurchase TypeSharesAmountSharesAmount
Open Market Repurchases
 $ 17 $67 
Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share
We are authorized to issue up to 50 shares of undesignated preferred stock with a liquidation preference of $0.001 per share.  There were no shares of preferred stock issued or outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.

(13)Benefit Plans 
We recognized share-based payment expense of $45 for each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
2015 Long-Term Stock Incentive Plan
In May 2015, our stockholders approved the Sirius XM Holdings Inc. 2015 Long-Term Stock Incentive Plan (the “2015 Plan”).  Employees, consultants and members of our board of directors are eligible to receive awards under the 2015 Plan.  The 2015 Plan provides for the grant of stock options, restricted stock awards, restricted stock units and other stock-based awards that the Compensation Committee of our Board of Directors deems appropriate.  Stock-based awards granted under the 2015 Plan are generally subject to a graded vesting requirement, which is generally three to four years from the grant date.  Stock options generally expire ten years from the date of grant.  Restricted stock units include performance-based restricted stock units (“PRSUs”), the vesting of which are subject to the achievement of performance goals and the employee's continued employment and generally cliff vest on the third anniversary of the grant date. Each restricted stock unit entitles the holder to receive one share of common stock upon vesting.  As of March 31, 2024, 89 shares of common stock were available for future grants under the 2015 Plan.
The Compensation Committee intends to award equity-based compensation to our senior management in the form of: stock options, restricted stock units, PRSUs, which will cliff vest after a performance period target established by the Compensation Committee is achieved, and PRSUs, which will cliff vest after a performance period based on the performance of our common stock relative to the companies included in the S&P 500 Index, which we refer to as a relative “TSR” or “total stockholder return” metric. TSRs based on the relative total stockholder return metric will only vest if our performance achieves at least the 25th percentile, with a target payout requiring performance at the 50th percentile. The settlement of PRSUs earned in respect of the applicable performance period will be generally subject to the executive’s continued employment with us through the date the total stockholder return performance is certified by the Compensation Committee.
Other Plans
We maintain six share-based benefit plans in addition to the 2015 Plan — the Sirius XM Radio Inc. 2009 Long-Term Stock Incentive Plan, the Amended and Restated Sirius Satellite Radio 2003 Long-Term Stock Incentive Plan, the 2014 Stock Incentive Plan of AdsWizz Inc., the Pandora Media, Inc. 2011 Equity Incentive Plan, the Pandora Media, Inc. 2004 Stock Plan and the TheSavageBeast.com, Inc. 2000 Stock Incentive Plan. Excluding dividend equivalent units granted as a result of a declared dividend, no further awards may be made under these plans.
The following table summarizes the weighted-average assumptions used to compute the fair value of options granted to employees, members of our board of directors and non-employees:

 For the Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Risk-free interest rate4.2%4.0%
Expected life of options — years3.763.80
Expected stock price volatility39%31%
Expected dividend yield2.1%1.9%
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(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
The following table summarizes stock option activity under our share-based plans for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
 OptionsWeighted-Average
Exercise Price
Per Share
Weighted-Average
Remaining
Contractual Term (Years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Outstanding as of December 31, 2023122 $5.60 
Granted17 $5.13 
Exercised(1)$3.81 
Forfeited, cancelled or expired(1)$5.82 
Outstanding as of March 31, 2024137 $5.55 5.16$5 
Exercisable as of March 31, 202495 $5.56 4.19$5 
The weighted average grant date fair value per stock option granted during the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $1.54.  The total intrinsic value of stock options exercised during each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was $1.  During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the number of net settled shares issued as a result of stock option exercises was less than 1.
We recognized share-based payment expense associated with stock options of $8 for each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
The following table summarizes the restricted stock unit, including PRSU, activity under our share-based plans for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
 SharesGrant Date
Fair Value Per Share
Nonvested as of December 31, 202389 $5.59 
Granted8 $5.17 
Vested(7)$6.09 
Forfeited(4)$5.63 
Nonvested as of March 31, 202486 $5.49 
The total intrinsic value of restricted stock units, including PRSUs, vesting during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was $34 and $32, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the number of net settled shares issued as a result of restricted stock units vesting totaled 4. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we granted 6 PRSUs to certain employees. We believe it is probable that the performance target applicable to these PRSUs will be achieved.
In connection with the cash dividends paid during the three months ended March 31, 2024, we granted less than 1 restricted stock units, including PRSUs, in accordance with the terms of existing award agreements. These grants did not result in any additional incremental share-based payment expense being recognized during the three months ended March 31, 2024.
We recognized share-based payment expense associated with restricted stock units, including PRSUs, of $37 for each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
Total unrecognized compensation costs related to unvested share-based payment awards for stock options and restricted stock units, including PRSUs, granted to employees, members of our board of directors and third parties at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 was $425 and $423, respectively.  The total unrecognized compensation costs at March 31, 2024 are expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.5 years.
401(k) Savings Plans
Sirius XM sponsors the Sirius XM Radio Inc. 401(k) Savings Plan (the “Sirius XM Plan”) for eligible employees. The Sirius XM Plan allows eligible employees to voluntarily contribute from 1% to 50% of their pre-tax eligible earnings, subject to certain defined limits. We match 50% of an employee’s voluntary contributions per pay period on the first 6% of an employee’s pre-tax salary up to a maximum of 3% of eligible compensation.  We may also make additional discretionary matching, true-up matching and non-elective contributions to the Sirius XM Plan.  Employer matching contributions under the Sirius XM Plan
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(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
vest at a rate of 33.33% for each year of employment and are fully vested after three years of employment for all current and future contributions.  Our cash employer matching contributions are not used to purchase shares of our common stock on the open market, unless the employee elects our common stock as their investment option for this contribution.
We recognized expenses of $6 for each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 in connection with the Sirius XM Plan.
Sirius XM Holdings Inc. Deferred Compensation Plan
The Sirius XM Holdings Inc. Deferred Compensation Plan (the “DCP”) allows members of our board of directors and certain eligible employees to defer all or a portion of their base salary, cash incentive compensation and/or board of directors’ cash compensation, as applicable.  Pursuant to the terms of the DCP, we may elect to make additional contributions beyond amounts deferred by participants, but we are under no obligation to do so.  We have established a grantor (or “rabbi”) trust to facilitate the payment of our obligations under the DCP.
Contributions to the DCP, net of withdrawals, were $2 and $1 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the fair value of the investments held in the trust were $58 and $53, respectively, which is included in Other long-term assets in our unaudited consolidated balance sheets and classified as trading securities.  Trading gains and losses associated with these investments are recorded in Other (expense) income within our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.  The associated liability is recorded within Other long-term liabilities in our unaudited consolidated balance sheets, and any increase or decrease in the liability is recorded in General and administrative expense within our unaudited consolidated statements of comprehensive income.  We recorded gains on investments held in the trust of $3 and $2 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

(14)Commitments and Contingencies 
The following table summarizes our expected contractual cash commitments as of March 31, 2024:
 20242025202620272028ThereafterTotal
Debt obligations$504 $6 $1,035 $1,500 $2,000 $4,249 $9,294 
Cash interest payments199 385 383 345 269 367 1,948 
Satellite and transmission225 210 92 40  2 569 
Programming and content314 348 236 148 79 63 1,188 
Sales and marketing78 29 18 6   131 
Satellite incentive payments6 8 3 3 3 12 35 
Operating lease obligations43 52 48 40 30 49 262 
Royalties, minimum guarantees and other436 561 741 257 251 270 2,516 
Total (1)
$1,805 $1,599 $2,556 $2,339 $2,632 $5,012 $15,943 
(1)The table does not include our reserve for uncertain tax positions, which at March 31, 2024 totaled $64.
Debt obligations.    Debt obligations include principal payments on outstanding debt and finance lease obligations.
Cash interest payments.    Cash interest payments include interest due on outstanding debt and capital lease payments through maturity.
Satellite and transmission.    We have entered into agreements for the design, construction and launch of four additional satellites, SXM-9, SXM-10, SXM-11 and SXM-12. We also have entered into agreements with third parties to operate and maintain satellite telemetry, tracking and control facilities and certain components of our terrestrial repeater networks.
Programming and content.    We have entered into various programming and content agreements. Under the terms of these agreements, our obligations include fixed payments, advertising commitments and revenue sharing arrangements. In
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(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
certain of these agreements, the future revenue sharing costs are dependent upon many factors and are difficult to estimate; therefore, they are not included in our minimum contractual cash commitments.
Sales and marketing.    We have entered into various marketing, sponsorship and distribution agreements to promote our brands and are obligated to make payments to sponsors, retailers, automakers, radio manufacturers and other third parties under these agreements. Certain programming and content agreements also require us to purchase advertising on properties owned or controlled by the licensors.
Satellite incentive payments.    Maxar Technologies (formerly Space Systems/Loral), the manufacturer of certain of our in-orbit satellites, may be entitled to future in-orbit performance payments upon XM-5, SIRIUS FM-5, SIRIUS FM-6, and SXM-8 meeting their fifteen-year design life, which we expect to occur.
Operating lease obligations.    We have entered into both cancelable and non-cancelable operating leases for office space, terrestrial repeaters, data centers and equipment. These leases provide for minimum lease payments, additional operating expense charges, leasehold improvements and rent escalations that have initial terms ranging from one to fifteen years, and certain leases have options to renew.
Royalties, Minimum Guarantees and Other. We have entered into music royalty arrangements that include fixed payments. In addition, certain of our podcast agreements also contain minimum guarantees. As of March 31, 2024, we had future fixed commitments related to music royalty and podcast agreements of $1,049, of which $188 will be paid in 2024 and the remainder will be paid thereafter. On a quarterly basis, we record the greater of the cumulative actual content costs incurred or the cumulative minimum guarantee based on forecasts for the minimum guarantee period. The minimum guarantee period is the period of time that the minimum guarantee relates to, as specified in each agreement, which may be annual or a longer period. The cumulative minimum guarantee, based on forecasts, considers factors such as listening hours, downloads, revenue, subscribers and other terms of each agreement that impact our expected attainment or recoupment of the minimum guarantees based on the relative attribution method.
We have entered into certain tax equity investments in which we expect to make future contributions. These future contributions are expected to be made over the remaining respective terms of the investments and totaled $783 as of March 31, 2024, of which $47 is expected to be paid in 2024 and the remainder thereafter.
Several of our content agreements also include provisions related to the royalty payments and structures of those agreements relative to other content licensing arrangements, which, if triggered, cause our payments under those agreements to escalate. In addition, record labels, publishers and performing rights organizations with whom we have entered into direct license agreements have the right to audit our content payments, and such audits often result in disputes over whether we have paid the proper content costs.
We have also entered into various agreements with third parties for general operating purposes.
In addition to the minimum contractual cash commitments described above, we have entered into other variable cost arrangements. These future costs are dependent upon many factors and are difficult to anticipate; however, these costs may be substantial. We may enter into additional programming, distribution, marketing and other agreements that contain similar variable cost provisions. We do not have any other significant off-balance sheet financing arrangements that are reasonably likely to have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.
Legal Proceedings
In the ordinary course of business, we are a defendant or party to various claims and lawsuits, including those discussed below.

We record a liability when we believe that it is both probable that a liability will be incurred, and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. We evaluate developments in legal matters that could affect the amount of liability that has been previously accrued and make adjustments as appropriate. Significant judgment is required to determine both probability and the estimated amount of a loss or potential loss. We may be unable to reasonably estimate the reasonably possible loss or range
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(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
of loss for a particular legal contingency for various reasons, including, among others, because: (i) the damages sought are indeterminate; (ii) the proceedings are in the relative early stages; (iii) there is uncertainty as to the outcome of pending proceedings (including motions and appeals); (iv) there is uncertainty as to the likelihood of settlement and the outcome of any negotiations with respect thereto; (v) there remain significant factual issues to be determined or resolved; (vi) the relevant law is unsettled; or (vii) the proceedings involve novel or untested legal theories. In such instances, there may be considerable uncertainty regarding the ultimate resolution of such matters, including the likelihood or magnitude of a possible eventual loss, if any.

New York State v. Sirius XM Radio Inc. On December 20, 2023, the People of the State of New York, by Letitia James, Attorney General of the State of New York (the “NY AG”), filed a Petition in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, New York County, against us. The Petition alleges various violations of New York law and the federal Restore Online Shoppers’ Confidence Act (“ROSCA”) arising out of our subscription cancellation practices. The Petition is the product of a subpoena that the NY AG issued in December 2021 seeking documents relating to our subscription cancellation practices and the related investigation. In general, the Petition alleges that we require consumers to devote an excessive amount of time to cancel subscriptions and have not implemented cancellation processes that are simple and efficient.

The Petition claims to be brought under certain provisions of New York law that authorize the NY AG to initiate special proceedings seeking injunctive and other equitable relief in cases of persistent business fraud or illegality. The Petition seeks: a permanent injunction from us violating provisions of New York law and ROSCA arising out of the alleged fraudulent, deceptive and illegal practices associated with our subscription cancellation procedures; an accounting of each consumer who cancelled, or sought to cancel, a satellite radio subscription, including the duration of the cancel interaction and the funds collected from such consumers after that interaction; monetary restitution and damages to aggrieved consumers; disgorgement of all profits resulting from the alleged illegal, deceptive and fraudulent acts; civil penalties; and the NY AG’s costs.

In March 2024, Sirius XM filed its Answer to the Petition which was supported by various factual declarations and asserts affirmative defenses to the allegations contained in the Petition. In connection with the Answer, Sirius XM cross moved for summary judgment with respect to various claims asserted in the Petition. In April 2024, the NY AG filed its responsive pleadings in support of the Petition and in opposition to Sirius XM’s cross motion for summary judgment.

Sirius XM intends to defend this action vigorously.

U.S. Music Royalty Fee Actions and Mass Arbitrations. A number of class actions and mass arbitrations have been commenced against Sirius XM relating to its pricing, billing and subscription marketing practices. Although each class action and mass arbitration contains unique allegations; in general, the actions and arbitrations allege that Sirius XM falsely advertised its music subscription plans at lower prices than it actually charges, that it allegedly did not disclose its “U.S. Music Royalty Fee”, and that Sirius XM has taken other actions to prevent customers from discovering the existence, amount and nature of the U.S. Music Royalty Fee in violation of various state consumer protection laws.

The plaintiffs and claimants seek to enjoin Sirius XM from advertising its music subscription plans without specifically disclosing the existence and amount of the U.S. Music Royalty Fee. The plaintiffs and claimants also seek disgorgement, restitution and/or damages in the aggregate amount of U.S Music Royalty Fees paid by customers, as well as statutory and punitive damages where available.

To date, the actions and arbitrations filed against Sirius XM include:

On April 14, 2023, Ayana Stevenson and David Ambrose, individually, as private attorneys general, and on behalf of all other California persons similarly situated, filed a class action complaint against Sirius XM in the Superior Court of the State of California, County of Contra Costa. The case was removed to the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, which issued an Order on November 9, 2023 granting Sirius XM’s Motion to Compel Arbitration and dismissed the complaint. Plaintiffs appealed the Court’s granting of the Motion, and Sirius XM cross-appealed the Court’s dismissal in lieu of the issuance of a stay pending arbitration. The appeal and cross-appeal are currently stayed in the Ninth Circuit pending resolution of a related issue by the United States Supreme Court.

On May 17, 2023, Robyn Posternock, Muriel Salters and Philip Munning, individually, as private attorneys general, and on behalf of all other New Jersey persons similarly situated, filed a class action complaint against Sirius XM in the
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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
United States District Court for the District of New Jersey. Sirius XM filed a Motion to Compel Arbitration on August 18, 2023, which remains pending.

On June 5, 2023, Christopher Carovillano and Steven Brandt, individually, as private attorneys general, and on behalf of all other U.S. persons similarly situated (excluding persons in the states of California, New Jersey and Washington), filed a class action complaint against Sirius XM in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. On February 6, 2024, the Court issued an Order denying Sirius XM’s Motion to Dismiss and Sirius XM filed an Answer to the complaint on February 20, 2024.

Commencing in June 2023, various law firms began filing mass arbitration claims against Sirius XM before the American Arbitration Association (the AAA). Collectively, the law firms purport to act on behalf of approximately 53,000 claimants. Several of the law firms have asserted additional causes of action under the Electronic Funds Transfer Act.

Sirius XM believes it has substantial defenses to the claims asserted in these actions and arbitrations, and it intends to defend these actions vigorously.

Other Matters.  In the ordinary course of business, we are a defendant in various other lawsuits and arbitration proceedings, including derivative actions; actions filed by subscribers, both on behalf of themselves and on a class action basis; former employees; parties to contracts or leases; and owners of patents, trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property. None of these other matters, in our opinion, is likely to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

(15)Income Taxes
We have historically filed a consolidated federal income tax return for all of our wholly owned subsidiaries, including Sirius XM and Pandora. On February 1, 2021, we entered into a tax sharing agreement with Liberty Media governing the allocation of consolidated U.S. income tax liabilities and setting forth agreements with respect to other tax matters. The tax sharing agreement contains provisions that we believe are customary for tax sharing agreements between members of a consolidated group. On November 3, 2021, Liberty Media informed us that it beneficially owned over 80% of the outstanding shares of our common stock; as a result of this, we were included in the consolidated tax return of Liberty Media beginning November 4, 2021. The tax sharing agreement and our inclusion in Liberty Media’s consolidated tax group is not expected to have any material adverse effect on us.
We have calculated the provision for income taxes by using a separate return method.  Any difference between the tax expense (or benefit) allocated to us under the separate return method and payments to be made for (or received from) Liberty Media for tax expense are treated as either dividends or capital contributions. Income tax expense was $80 and $75 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Our effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was 23.2% and 24.4%, respectively. The effective tax rate for each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023 was negatively impacted by shortfalls related to share-based compensation. We estimate our effective tax rate for the year ending December 31, 2024 will be approximately 22%.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we recognized net tax benefits of $4 in Income tax expense in our unaudited consolidated statement of comprehensive income which includes tax credits and other income tax benefits of $25 partially offset by amortization expense of $21 associated with our tax equity investments. Refer to Note 10 for more information on our tax equity investments.
As of each of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we had a valuation allowance related to deferred tax assets of $88 that were not likely to be realized due to the timing of certain federal and state net operating loss limitations.
On August 16, 2022, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, or IRA, was signed into law. Among other things, the IRA imposes a 15% corporate alternative minimum tax for tax years beginning after December 31, 2022, levies a 1% excise tax on net stock repurchases after December 31, 2022, and provides tax incentives to promote clean energy. Based on our historical
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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
net stock repurchase activity, the excise tax and the other provisions of the IRA did not have a material impact on our results of operations or financial position.
(16)Segments and Geographic Information
In accordance with FASB ASC Topic 280, Segment Reporting, we disaggregate our operations into two reportable segments: Sirius XM and Pandora and Off-platform. The financial results of these segments are utilized by the chief operating decision maker, who is our Chief Executive Officer, for evaluating segment performance and allocating resources. We report our segment information based on the "management" approach. The management approach designates the internal reporting used by management for making decisions and assessing performance as the source of our reportable segments. For additional information on our segments refer to Note 1.
Segment results include the revenues and cost of services which are directly attributable to each segment. There are no indirect revenues or costs incurred that are allocated to the segments. There are planned intersegment advertising campaigns which will be eliminated. We had intersegment advertising revenue of $2 and $1 during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Segment revenue and gross profit were as follows during the period presented:
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Sirius XMPandora and Off-platformTotal
Revenue
Subscriber revenue$1,547 $133 $1,680 
Advertising revenue40 362 402 
Equipment revenue50  50 
Other revenue30  30 
Total revenue1,667 495 2,162 
Cost of services (a)
(674)(352)(1,026)
Segment gross profit$993 $143 $1,136 
The reconciliation between reportable segment gross profit to consolidated income before income tax is as follows:
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Segment Gross Profit$1,136 
Subscriber acquisition costs(90)
Sales and marketing (a)
(217)
Engineering, design and development (a)
(74)
General and administrative (a)
(105)
Depreciation and amortization(140)
Share-based payment expense(45)
Impairment, restructuring and acquisition costs(28)
Total other expense(92)
Consolidated income before income taxes$345 
(a)     Share-based payment expense of $11 related to cost of services, $12 related to sales and marketing, $12 related to engineering, design and development and $10 related to general and administrative has been excluded.

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SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - Continued
(UNAUDITED)
(Dollars and shares in millions, except per share amounts)
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Sirius XMPandora and Off-platformTotal
Revenue
Subscriber revenue$1,563 $128 $1,691 
Advertising revenue41 334 375 
Equipment revenue46  46 
Other revenue32  32 
Total revenue1,682 462 2,144 
Cost of services (b)
(664)(351)(1,015)
Segment gross profit$1,018 $111 $1,129 
    The reconciliation between reportable segment gross profit to consolidated income before income tax is as follows:
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Segment Gross Profit$1,129 
Subscriber acquisition costs(90)
Sales and marketing (b)
(214)
Engineering, design and development (b)
(68)
General and administrative (b)
(132)
Depreciation and amortization(136)
Share-based payment expense(45)
Impairment, restructuring and acquisition costs(32)
Total other expense(104)
Consolidated income before income taxes$308 
(b)     Share-based payment expense of $9 related to cost of services, $10 related to sales and marketing, $11 related to engineering, design and development and $15 related to general and administrative has been excluded.
A measure of segment assets is not currently provided to the Chief Executive Officer and has therefore not been provided.
As of March 31, 2024, long-lived assets were predominantly located in the United States. No individual foreign country represented a material portion of our consolidated revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.

(17)Subsequent Events
Capital Return Program
On April 24, 2024, our board of directors declared a quarterly dividend on our common stock in the amount of $0.0266 per share of common stock payable on May 29, 2024 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on May 10, 2024.
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ITEM 2.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS 
All amounts referenced in this Item 2 are in millions, except subscriber amounts are in thousands and per subscriber and per installation amounts are in ones, unless otherwise stated.
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our unaudited consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q presents information for Sirius XM Holdings Inc. (“Holdings”).  The terms “Holdings,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and “our company” as used herein, and unless otherwise stated or indicated by context, refer to Sirius XM Holdings Inc. and its subsidiaries. "Sirius XM" refers to our wholly owned subsidiary Sirius XM Radio Inc. and its subsidiaries. "Pandora" refers to Sirius XM's wholly owned subsidiary Pandora Media, LLC and its subsidiaries. Holdings has no operations independent of Sirius XM and Pandora.
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
The following cautionary statements identify important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those projected in forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in other reports and documents published by us from time to time. Any statements about our beliefs, plans, objectives, expectations, assumptions, future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “will likely result,” “are expected to,” “will continue,” “is anticipated,” “estimated,” “intend,” “plan,” “projection” and “outlook.” Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in other reports and documents published by us from time to time, including the risk factors described under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A, of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” herein and in Part II, Item 7, of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Among the significant factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements are:

Risks Relating to our Business and Operations:

we face substantial competition and that competition is likely to increase over time;
if our efforts to attract and retain subscribers and listeners, or convert listeners into subscribers, are not successful, our business will be adversely affected;
we engage in extensive marketing efforts and the continued effectiveness of those efforts is an important part of our business;
we rely on third parties for the operation of our business, and the failure of third parties to perform could adversely affect our business;
we are migrating our billing system and payment processing function to a new service provider;
failure to successfully monetize and generate revenues from podcasts and other non-music content could adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition;
we may not realize the benefits of acquisitions or other strategic investments and initiatives;
the impact of economic conditions may adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition; and
we may be adversely affected by the war in Ukraine.

Risks Relating to our Sirius XM Business:

a substantial number of our Sirius XM service subscribers periodically cancel their subscriptions and we cannot predict how successful we will be at retaining customers;
our ability to profitably attract and retain subscribers to our Sirius XM service is uncertain;
our business depends in part upon the auto industry;
failure of our satellites would significantly damage our business; and
our Sirius XM service may experience harmful interference from wireless operations.

Risks Relating to our Pandora and Off-platform Business:

our Pandora ad-supported business has suffered a substantial and consistent loss of monthly active users, which may adversely affect our Pandora and Off-platform business;
our Pandora and Off-platform business generates a significant portion of its revenues from advertising, and reduced spending by advertisers could harm our business;
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our failure to convince advertisers of the benefits of our Pandora ad-supported service could harm our business;
if we are unable to maintain revenue growth from our advertising products our results of operations will be adversely affected;
changes to mobile operating systems and browsers may hinder our ability to sell advertising and market our services; and
if we fail to accurately predict and play music, comedy or other content that our Pandora listeners enjoy, we may fail to retain existing and attract new listeners.

Risks Relating to Laws and Governmental Regulations:

privacy and data security laws and regulations may hinder our ability to market our services, sell advertising and impose legal liabilities;
consumer protection laws and our failure to comply with them could damage our business;
failure to comply with FCC requirements could damage our business;
environmental, social and governance expectations and related reporting obligations may expose us to potential liabilities, increased costs, reputational harm, and other adverse effects; and
we may face lawsuits, incur liability or suffer reputational harm as a result of content published or made available through our services.

Risks Associated with Data and Cybersecurity and the Protection of Consumer Information:

if we fail to protect the security of personal information about our customers, we could be subject to costly government enforcement actions and private litigation and our reputation could suffer;
we use artificial intelligence in our business, and challenges with properly managing its use could result in reputational harm, competitive harm, and legal liability and adversely affect our results of operations; and
interruption or failure of our information technology and communications systems could impair the delivery of our service and harm our business.

Risks Associated with Certain Intellectual Property Rights:

the market for music rights is changing and is subject to significant uncertainties;
our Pandora services depend upon maintaining complex licenses with copyright owners, and these licenses contain onerous terms;
failure to protect our intellectual property or actions by third parties to enforce their intellectual property rights could substantially harm our business and operating results;
some of our services and technologies may use “open source” software, which may restrict how we use or distribute our services or require that we release the source code subject to those licenses; and
rapid technological and industry changes and new entrants could adversely impact our services.

Risks Related to our Capital and Ownership Structure:

we have a significant amount of indebtedness, and our debt contains certain covenants that restrict our operations;
we are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NASDAQ listing rules and, as a result, qualify for, and rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements;
our principal stockholder has significant influence, including over actions requiring stockholder approval, and its interests may differ from the interests of other holders of our common stock;
the Transactions may adversely affect our business and financial condition; and
while we currently pay a quarterly cash dividend to holders of our common stock, we may change our dividend policy at any time.

Other Operational Risks:

if we are unable to attract and retain qualified personnel, our business could be harmed;
our facilities could be damaged by natural catastrophes or terrorist activities;
the unfavorable outcome of pending or future litigation could have an adverse impact on our operations and financial condition;
we may be exposed to liabilities that other entertainment service providers would not customarily be subject to; and
our business and prospects depend on the strength of our brands.
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Because the risk factors referred to above could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf, you should not place undue reliance on any of these forward-looking statements. In addition, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement or statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made, to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events or otherwise, except as required by law. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which will arise or to assess with any precision the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.


Executive Summary
We operate two complementary audio entertainment businesses - one of which we refer to as “SiriusXM” and the second of which we refer to as “Pandora and Off-platform”. 

Sirius XM
Our Sirius XM business features music, sports, entertainment, comedy, talk, news, traffic and weather channels and other content, as well as podcasts and infotainment services, in the United States on a subscription fee basis. Sirius XM's packages include live, curated and certain exclusive and on demand programming. The Sirius XM service is distributed through our two proprietary satellite radio systems and streamed via applications for mobile devices, home devices and other consumer electronic equipment. Satellite radios are primarily distributed through automakers, retailers and our website. Our Sirius XM service is also available through our in-car user interface, which we call “360L,” that combines our satellite and streaming services into a single, cohesive in-vehicle entertainment experience.
The primary source of revenue from our Sirius XM business is subscription fees, with most of our customers subscribing to monthly, quarterly, semi-annual or annual plans.  We also derive revenue from advertising on select non-music channels, which is sold under the SiriusXM Media brand, direct sales of our satellite radios and accessories, and other ancillary services.  As of March 31, 2024, our Sirius XM business had approximately 33.4 million subscribers.
In addition to our audio entertainment businesses, we provide connected vehicle services to several automakers. These services are designed to enhance the safety, security and driving experience of consumers. We also offer a suite of data services that includes graphical weather and fuel prices, a traffic information service, and real-time weather services in boats and airplanes.
Sirius XM also holds a 70% equity interest and 33% voting interest in Sirius XM Canada. Sirius XM Canada's subscribers are not included in our subscriber count or subscriber-based operating metrics.